The prophet-hood and the apostle-hood was in the Children of Israel

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This was known to ancient peoples round about Palestine in the past; the Egyptian, the Babylonian and the Assyrian.
These peoples knew the prophets and messengers came from among the Children of Israel.

1- Prophet Joseph son of Jacob was a messenger to the ancient Egyptian at his time... they doubted his apostle-hood while he lived among them, then after his death, they said: yes, he was a prophet, and none will come after him as a messenger from God.
2- Prophet Moses: a messenger to Pharaoh and his people and to the Children of Israel.
3- Prophet Jonah as a messenger to Nineveh people.
4- Prophets Jeremiah the messenger to the Israelite , Danie, and Ezekiel among the Babylonian.
 

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Prophet Joseph - salam to him - was a messenger to the Egyptian in his time; he interpreted the dream of the king and then was made like a prime minister or deputy of the king.
He managed the food keeping and distribution in 14 years: 7 years of good climate: rain and etc, and 7 years of the drought.
Quran 40: 34, which means:
(“Joseph [son of Jacob] brought you the clear signs before [400 hundred years ago.]
Yet you ceased not to doubt of [the religion] that he brought you.
At length, when he perished, you said, "God will not send any messenger after him." [And you kept on your disbelief, thinking that God will not bring about a new evidence against you: by sending you a new messenger.]

As such does God misguide those indulgent [in wrong-doing] and doubting [about the sending of prophets.]”)


Comment: During his life time, the Egyptian doubted his apostle-hood, but after he died, they said: God will never sent an apostle after Joseph.
As such, Muslims (and others) have been misguided when they said: there will be no Mahdi.
 

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Prophet Moses - salam to him - was sent to Pharaoh and his people

Quran 73: 15
, which means:
(15. Surely, We have sent to you [Mohammed as] a messenger to witness against you [on Doomsday], even as had We sent [Moses son of Amram as] a messenger to Pharaoh.
16. But Pharaoh rebelled against the messenger [and did not believe]; and, consequently, We seized him with a severe consecutive [kinds of] punishment.)

More explanation:

The implication of the aya:
If you do not believe, We will punish you with a severe punishment, as We seized Pharaoh and his people with a severe punishment, when they disbelieved and rebelled against Our messenger Moses.
 

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Prophet Jonah as a messenger to Nineveh people
Every messenger should speak the language of the people to whom he is sent, and he should be one of others in his tribe, but how was Jonah sent to a people who were not his people.
Second: why was he afraid from the people of Nineveh?
 

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The answer to the previous post:
1- He certainly knew the language of Nineveh. Assure took in captivity the northern part of Israel, while later on, the Babylonian took in captivity the southern part of Israel. Therefore, Jonah might have passed his childhood in Nineveh the capital of Assure. Moreover, his mother might have been from Nineveh people.
This is only my own opinion. Or else how could he know their language!?
2- Jonah was afraid of the people of Nineveh, and he fled and went abroad a ship going to another place.. etc.
It certainly was the work of Satan who comes to every messenger to stir terror of the people in his heart.
And it worked for Jonah.
Why was he extraordinarily afraid of the people of Nineveh? It maybe he was tortured in his childhood by the people of Nineveh: they beat him and terrified him.
Also this is only my personal opinion. Only deduction which may be wrong or correct; I am not certain.
 

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Prophets Jeremiah the messenger to the Israelite
The movie I saw a few years ago about Prophet Jeremiah was defective in expounding the mission of Jeremiah.
He preached the monotheism and 'the exclusive devotion to God alone' and that people should refrain from wrong-doing.
But they did not listen to him, then the king of Babylon conquered Israel
 

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Prophet Joshua the leader of the believers against the idolaters:
He did many benefits to his people: he was a disciple of Moses.
One of his excellent works: he (together with Caleb son of jephunneh told the truth about Jericho and its people.
Then he wrote the Torah revealed to Moses during Moses life,
then when Moses died he led his people to conquer Jericho and her people the idolaters.
Then when the Israelite married the idolatrous women, he rebuked them and removed the idolatry from his people and made a testimony of them to this that God alone is the God without associate. So he had favor on his people.

Quran 6: 154, which means:
(Then [after giving him the Ten Commandments written on two Tablets of stone] We gave the Scripture to Moses, [and Joshua wrote it down on the parchment till the Book was] completed to [Joshua] who did good [to his people, following the death of Moses and Aaron],

and [the Book was] an explanation about everything [of the religious affairs], a guidance and a mercy [to the Children of Israel]; so that they might believe in meeting their Lord [in the Next Life.])

See more explanation of this aya by Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly
 

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Prophet Samuel:
He prophesied that Saul would be the king to lead the Israelite in their wars against the idolaters.

Quran 2: 246-248, which mean:
(247. Have you not considered the chiefs among the Children of Israel after [the death of] Moses; they said to [Samuel:] one of their prophets: "Appoint for us a king a, to fight [under his leadership] in the cause of God."
[Samuel] said, "Have you determined [to fight your enemies], should fighting be prescribed for you? Perhaps, then, you will not fight!"
They said: "Why should we not fight in the cause of God, the while we have been driven [by our enemy] out of our homes, and our children [are captives]!?"
Yet when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned away, all save a little number of them.

But God is All-Knowing about the wrong-doers.

248. And [Samuel] their prophet, said to them: "God has assigned [Saul] j 'the tall man', to be your king."
They said: "How can he have sovereignty over us [when he belongs to the tribe of Benjamin which is not the tribe of sovereignty, and] the while we are more worthy of the sovereignty than he is [because we belong to the tribes of the prophet-hood and sovereignty: Levi and Juda, and moreover] he has not been provided with much wealth [which he may use for the affairs of the kingdom]!?"
[Their prophet] said: "God has chosen him out of you, and has bestowed on him abundant increase in knowledge and in body stature. God gives the sovereignty to whomever He pleases. God is All-Bountiful, All-Knowing."

See the detailed explanation of these ayat by Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly
 

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Prophet Aaron the brother of Moses:
Moses asked God to support him with his brother Aaron, and God answered his prayer and sent Aaron as a messenger together with Moses (to confirm him before Pharaoh.)
Then when Moses left his people and went to the Mount Horeb, he let Aaron in his place.
Afterwards, when people fell in the idolatry and worshiped the statue of the calf, Aaron forbade them, but they did not listen to him.
This is in the Quran which corrected the mistake in the Torah of Ezra about this point.

The First Lie: About Prophet Aaron
 

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For Aaron, he was a true believer, but he was overcome by the idolaters and hypocrites among his people, when Moses left them and went to the Mount Horeb to receive the Ten Commandments.

Quran 7: 150, which means:
(150. And when Moses returned to his people [coming from the mountain], being angry and sorrowful, he said [to his people]:
"What bad people you were after I left you and went to the mountain to bring you the Tablets, [and you did such an awful thing in my absence!]
Did you hasten on my coming back and the Tablets which your Lord commanded with?
And he threw the Tablets [from his hand on the ground violently], and took hold of the head of his brother [Aaron] dragging him towards himself.
[Aaron] said [to Moses]: "Son of my mother, these people considered me weak and were about to kill me. Do not then allow the enemies to gloat over me, and do not count me as one of the people who did wrong."

151. [Moses] said: "My Lord, forgive me and my brother, and admit us [following our death] into Your grace [: Your paradise]; You are the Most Merciful of all the merciful.")

See the complete explanation by Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly



 

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Prophets in the Quran:
Usually in summary: the Quran is concise.
Some prophets and messengers stories are detailed, and others only just mentioned.
Some of the prophets are counted in categories: like those showing forbearance, and another category: those who migrated.
God said: He did not tell about all prophets and messengers: because they are so many.
Each messenger speaks the language of his people to whom he is sent.
All messengers and prophets invite people to believe in God as One God without associate, peer, son, daughters or parents.

Names of the prophets and messengers mentioned in the Quran:
Adam.
Noah was sent to Nineveh in Iraq.
Hud was sent to the tribe of Aad in the southern part of the Arab Peninsula.
Salih was sent to the tribe of Thamud in the northern part of the Arab Peninsula, after the time of Aad.
Abraham in Iraq, then migrated to the land of Canaan [: Jordan.]
Lot the nephew of Abrahm: the son of his brother, migrated with Abraham from Iraq to settle in Sodom before its destruction.

Then the prophethood was in the seed of Abraham:
Ishmael son of Abraham was sent to the tribe of Jurhum in Mecca.
Isaac a wise man and a prophet.
Jacob (surnamed: Israel i.e. the servant of God) he was the son of Isaac son of Abraham.
Joseph son of Jacob and his eleven brothers.
Shuaib (son of Tema son of Ishmael son of Abraham) was sent to the city of Midian. So he was not of the seed of Israel, but from Ishmael.
Job who lived in Yemen, in the time of Moses before the Exodus. He was a descendant of Abraham not from Israel but from Esau the son of Isaac.
Moses.
Aaron.
Joshua.
Samuel
(not mentioned by name.)
Nathan (not mentioned by name)
David.
Solomon.
Elia
(mentioned by his title: Edris.)
Jonah sent to Nineveh.
Isaias (mentioned by his title: Elais which means: he was desperate of that his people might believe.
Tobias. (In the Quran, called Luqman which means he was kind hearted so he put the morsel in the mouth of the poor.)
Nehemia (not mentioned by name, but by the tale of his people who violated the Sabbath.)

Then Zachariah and his son John Baptist (who invited people to believe in Jesus Christ.)
Then Jesus Christ was sent to the Children of Israel.
Then the disciples of the Christ sent to Jerusalem before its destruction, and to other cities.

Afterwards, the prophecy curtailed for the descendants of Israel, and given to Mohammed the descendant of Ishmael, the son of Abraham.

See the Quran interpretation by Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly for more details.
The Quran Intepretation - pdf
The Quran Intepretation (html)

Especially in the soora 21: 48-92

 
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Also mentioned in the Quran by name only is Eliseus the successor of Elia or Elijah; no other details for Eliseus, but mentioned together with the messengers who migrated for the cause of God.

Another one mentioned by title not by name is Ezechiel who is called in the Quran Zul-kifl because he warranted or guaranteed the Children of Israel return to Palestine, after their captivity of Babylon.