The Jacobite Rebellion.

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113

King James VII (of Scotland), James II (of England)


Setting the Stage

The term Jacobite is the name commonly given to English and Scottish supporters of the exiled Stuart dynasty, in particular the Roman Catholic line of these Kings. The name is derived from Jacobus, the Latin name for King James VII, the last Stuart King to sit on the British throne. Although the' 45 rebellion (1745) gains most of the attention in this period's history the Revolution actually started on April 4, 1689. For it was on this date a convention parliament declared that James VII forfeited the Scottish throne.

It was a time of great chaos in the British Isles, as there were numerous political and religious groups vying for power in the country. They consisted of the Catholic, Protestant, and Presbyterian religions that were even further refined by the political alignments of Whig, Tory, Roundhead, Royalist, and numerous other factions.

King Charles II had understood the need for tolerance during this time of political upheaval, and had managed to prosper with his restoration to the Crown after the Cromwell experience. But his brother, James VII, who apparently understood this need for tolerance, did not balance it against his natural desire for the security of his government.

James VII came to power as King of Scotland and England in 1685, after the death of his brother. He was quickly forced to deal with a revolt, which centered on the claims of his nephew, the illegitimate son of Charles II, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth. The revolt was quickly put down, but James was severe in his punishment of the participants. In his desire for personal security, James decided to maintain a standing army. He further helped his cause by installing many Roman Catholics into positions of authority in the army and government. While this move seemed a proper choice, it served to aggravate the situation, as many feared that the army would swoop down on any faction seen as opposing the King, religious or otherwise.

The King himself was Roman Catholic, while most of the country was Protestant. In 1688, two things happened which sparked a revolt and the later eviction of King James from Great Britain. First there was the birth of a son and heir to the throne, and secondly, King James put into law the "Declaration of Indulgence". The Declaration allowed Catholics and dissenters (any religion besides Protestant) to worship freely and was quite a revolutionary law for its time. But the move was seen as an increase in power and threat to the Protestants. In response, those against James VII invited William of Orange to England.

William was a Protestant by religion and the husband of Mary, eldest daughter of James and therefore son-in-law to the King. William landed in England in November 1688 and with his arrival most of the standing army of England deserted to his side. The King, James VII, was forced to retreat from England in fear of his life, taking his newborn son with him. England quickly stabilized in this transference of power, which was named the Glorious Revolution because of the lack of bloodshed, but Scotland was thrown into complete chaos.

Most of Scotland was Roman Catholic, and heavily favored James VII as their rightful King. But in the south of the country, the populace largely consisted of the Convenanters (a Presbyterian group). The Convenanters quickly gained control of the Scottish Parliament (under the threat of violence) and issued the "Claim of Right" which condemned James for his actions and consisted of three basic parts:

*James had forfeited the Crown by deserting his country.

*No 'Papist' (Roman Catholic) could be King.

*That "Prelacy and superiority of any office in the Church above Presbyters, is, and hath been a great and insupportable grievance and trouble to this Nation".

The matter was further fueled by the fact that France and Spain were both Roman Catholic countries at the time. The two countries were England's enemies and the Jacobite or Scottish sympathizers (Roman Catholics also) were therefore considered enemies of England. By this means, the stage was set for a revolution, a Jacobite revolution that would cover a period of almost sixty years, and although repeatedly unsuccessful, would greatly affect the history of England, Scotland, and even Ireland.

The Jacobite Rebellion, although a battle of succession for the British throne, was also a battle of religion. England was mainly Protestant, while Scotland and Ireland were largely Roman Catholic. Add to this mix the Presbyterians of lower Scotland and the stage is set for war. And although the events are called a rebellion, the conflict was in fact a war of religion which encompassed all three countries (England, Scotland, and Ireland) during the period of 1689 - 1747. Sadly, its effects are still felt in Great Britain today.

The first battle of the 'religious war' took place in 1689. John Graham, Viscount Dundee raised the standard of James VII in April of that year. By July he had the support of most of the Highland Clans and clergy and molded these forces around a base force of cavalry, which he commanded. On July 27th, the Jacobites under John Graham met and defeated a larger government army under Mackay in the Pass of Killiecrankie near Pitlorchy. The Jacobites won, but John Graham himself was killed. Without his leadership, this rebellion quickly petered out after another battle at Dunkeld on August 21st, 1689.

But King James VII, although removed from power, was busy gaining money and support in France. In 1690, he landed in Ireland to actively wage war on William III in an attempt to regain his kingdom. He quickly amassed an army of 21,000 that was met by William with his own army of 35,000 on the banks of the Boyne River, on July 12. James Stuart was easily defeated and was forced to return to France and exile. In response to this battle an organization called the Orangemen was created. The Orangemen were supporters of the Protestant William and continue to celebrate the Battle of the Boyne victory annually on its anniversary.


King William III (the Prince of Orange) - as the first Hanoverian monarch, the Jacobites, who wanted the Stuarts back on the Throne, wanted rid of him.

Support for King James was largely subdued at this point in Ireland, while his support in Scotland was wounded but still alive. A revolution settlement in 1690 further enforced the Protestant cause when it endorsed Presbyterianism, much to the dismay of the Catholics. Some claim that the "Massacre at Glencoe" on February 13th, 1692 was a further effort to eliminate Jacobite supporters for King James. For a time at least, things died down, but were not by any means settled. The Protestant and Presbyterian religions were firmly in power and the prosecution of the Catholics continued almost unabated.

In 1701, James VII (James II of England) died and in response King Louis XIV of France (a Roman Catholic himself) declared that James Frances Edward Stuart was now the rightful King of England. He became James III of England or James VIII of Scotland to his supporters, but still lived a life in exile in France. In response to some calls in England and Scotland for his placement on the English throne the government in England passed the "Act of Settlement".

The Act of Settlement secured by law the succession to the English Crown to the House of Hannover in the Protestant faith, with one exception, that being any heir of birth of Queen Anne, the last of the Protestant Stuarts. Therefore the normal law of succession of the Crown was ignored, and a line of rightful heirs was removed because of their religion.

The Protestant and Presbyterian religions further increased their power with the Act of Union in 1707, but many Scotsmen complained openly to the loss of their country. In response, King James III led a half-hearted and scantly supported effort at invasion of Scotland in 1708, but was quickly forced to return to France.

Numerous small plots were hatched to return James to power, but these fell largely on the whims of Spain and France, which were the only countries with both the power and desire to unseat the Protestant rule of England. But the Jacobite cause was still strong in the heart of many a Scotsman, and the '15 and the '45 would soon prove this to be true.

The Jacobite Rebellion, which lasted over a period of almost sixty years, was a war of succession and religion. The Jacobites were largely Roman Catholics who supported the exiled Stuart dynasty against a Protestant and Presbyterian system that was in control of England, Scotland and Ireland. This final installment of the three-part story covers the time period between 1713 and 1747.

In March 1713, France and England signed the Treaty of Utrecht, a codicil of which forbid the French from continuing to harbor James Stuart III (James VIII in Scotland), the current leader of the Jacobite cause and a claimant for the throne of England. James was forced to seek refuge elsewhere and ended up living in Spain, where he continued to seek support.

In 1714, Queen Anne, the last of Protestant Stuart monarchs died. In her place, King George I came into power. George was viewed as a foreigner and his inability to speak English did not endear him to his critics. Many people were very dissatisfied with this arrangement, including the Earl of Mar, who was rebuffed when he went to meet with the new monarch. In response to this snub, the Earl responded by again raising the colours of the exiled Stuart kings.

This rebellion of the Jacobite cause led by the Earl of Mar began in 1715. By the end of September, most of the Highlands were in his control and his army numbered some 5,000 with more appearing daily. But all this was done without even notifying the King they were claiming to support. The "Old Pretender", King James III, was not even aware of the situation as of yet. Word was sent to the King, and the size of the force continued to grow. The Earl, with his growing army, moved to Perth and established his base there after taking the city.

Meanwhile another Jacobite army was forming to the south, The Old Pretender hearing the news began to make preparations for his trip to Scotland and his crowning. By early November, the northern Jacobite army numbered some 12,000, mostly Clansmen from the Highlands. The Earl then decided to march south where he soon met the army of the Duke of Argyll, the only remaining government troops in Scotland.

The Jacobite forces were mismanaged and split. The southern army marched south to raise Lancashire instead of turning on the Duke of Argyll's flank, while a much smaller force under the Duke defeated the larger northern army of the Jacobites at Sherrrifmuir on November 13th. The southern army was also met and defeated at Preston by other government forces in England. The Jacobites were forced to retreat to Perth, while still waiting for their leader to arrive. The "Old Pretender" finally arrived in Scotland on the 22nd of December after leaving fittingly enough from Dunkirk. But the matter was already settled, as the Duke of Argyll was already receiving reinforcements of experienced troops and was preparing an overwhelming force to march north. The King, James III, was again forced to retreat after spending a dismal six weeks in Scotland.

After facing this possibly disastrous rebellion, the English soon passed the Disarming Act of 1716, which forbade the Highlanders from owning weapons. Another abortive rebellion was attempted in 1719, when James III got some minor support from both the French and the Spanish after he married the daughter of the Polish King.

In the aftermath of the Risings of 1715 and 1719 Major General George Wade was appointed to investigate conditions in the Highlands by the English. The main results of this were the building of better roads, so troops could move more easily, and the building of the major forts of Fort Augustus and Fort William.

The Polish bride of the Old Pretender quickly gave James III two sons: the eldest, Prince Charles, was born in Italy somewhat prophetically on the last day of the year 1720. His brother, Henry, was born on March 6th, 1725. The Stuart cause passed to the older of the two boys, who led the Scottish armies again during the '45 as 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'.

But this final Jacobite rebellion was also doomed to failure by lack of intelligence and poor leadership after many successes. This final rebellion ended at Culloden, a total disaster for the Scots, and Prince Charlie barely escaped. This ended the Jacobite Rebellions forever, as the English quickly passed many Acts against the Highlanders.

In retrospect, the Jacobite Rebellions are a reminder of man's fear of those who are different. It was largely a war of religion, fought for reasons that have no real bearing on the peaceful lives of those who fought in it, even though the participants thought so. The Rebellions of '15 and '45 could have ended much differently, as they had surprise and superior forces working in their favor. But they simply lacked the leadership to effectively take advantage of the situation.

Unfortunately, this episode in history continues to cause problems for the remaining Celtic nations. The Orangemen and the Catholics continue to fight, although any reason to continue this feud has passed long ago. Maybe some day, the remaining Celtic people will learn to live with each other, instead of fighting over matters which have little bearing on their day to day lives.
 

Colpy

Hall of Fame Member
Nov 5, 2005
21,819
695
113
67
Saint John, N.B.
Ah, the Battle of Culloden.

I remember it well.

Into military stuff? This is an interesting scrap. My history prof was into this one.

The Scots Highlanders were armed with (typically) a dagger, a brace of pistols, a small leather shield, and their Claymore (sword).

Now imagine the English lines. Men kneeling shoulder to shoulder, armed with muskets which they had just fired into the charging Scots, prepared to defend themselves with bayonet.

The Scots had previously shattered the English lines by running up to the cloud of smoke in front of the Brits, firing both pistols into the lines, drawing the Claymore and shield. They did not use the leather shield to deflect blows, instead they actually slammed the shield down on bayonet points, entrapping the bayonet, and leaving the British soldier defenseless against the sword stroke.

At Culloden, several things worked against the Scots. First, they let the Brits take the high ground. Secondly, Charley organized his ranks under fire from British cannon. (My Prof would say all Stuarts had one thing in common.....stupidity)

And lastly, a young colonel by the name of James Wolfe (sound familiar) was concerned by Scots successes in close combat, and he ordered his men to counter Scots tactics by the simple expedient of ignoring the man coming straight in at them, and committing their bayonet thrust at the man attacking the soldier on their right.

Imagine it. The Scot comes out of the smoke cloud, sword held high for the stike, shield searching for the bayonet point, only to find the bayonet NOT pointed at him, while the British soldier on his right is stabbing him under the sword arm.

Only the Campbells made it to the Brit lines, and they were massacred.

DISCLAIMER: All from memory. If I screwed up the facts, I accept no responsibility. :)

Great Story, eh?
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
The people opposing the Jacobites were the Williamites.

Probably the most famous battle of the Jacobite Risings was the Battle of the Boyne, in 1690. It was a victory for the Williamites -


Commanders

The Battle of the Boyne was a turning point in the Williamite war in Ireland between the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scotland and his son-in-law and successor, William, for the English, Scottish and Irish thrones. It took place on July 1, 1690 [as a consequence of the adoption of the Gregorian calendar the battle is now commemorated on July 12] just outside of the town of Drogheda on Ireland's east coast. Though not militarily decisive, its symbolic importance has made it one of the most infamous battles in British and Irish history and a key part in Irish Protestant folklore.


The opposing armies in the battle were led by the Roman Catholic King James of England, Scotland and Ireland and opposing him, his son-in-law the Protestant William III ("William of Orange") who had deposed James from his English and Scottish thrones in the previous year. James' supporters still controlled much of Ireland and the Irish Parliament. James also enjoyed the support of the French King, Louis XIV, who did not want to see a hostile monarch, such as William, on the throne of England. To support James' restoration, Louis sent 6000 French troops to Ireland to support the Irish Jacobites. William was already Stadtholder of the Netherlands and was able to call on Dutch and allied troops from continental Europe as well as from Britain.

James was a seasoned general who had proven his bravery when fighting for his brother — King Charles II — in Europe, notably at the battle of the Dunes in 1658. However, recent historians have noted that he was prone to panicking under pressure and to making rash decisions. William was also a seasoned commander and able general but had yet to win a full battle. Many of his battles ended in bloody stalemates, prompting at least one modern historian to argue that William lacked an ability to manage armies in the thick of battle. William's success against the French had been reliant upon tactical maneuvers and good diplomacy rather than force. His diplomacy had assembled the League of Augsburg - a multi-national coalition formed to resist French aggression in Europe. From William's point of view, his takeover of power in England and the ensuing campaign in Ireland was just another front in the war against Louis XIV of France.

James II's subordinate commanders were Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, who was the Lord Deputy of Ireland and James' most powerful supporter in that country; and the French general Lauzun. William's second in command was the Duke of Schomberg, a 75-year-old professional soldier. He had formerly been a Marshal of France, but had been expelled in 1685 from his native country by Louis XIV because he was a Huguenot Protestant.



Armies

The Williamite army at the Boyne was about 36,000 strong, composed of troops from many countries. Around 20,000 had been in Ireland since 1689, commanded by Schomberg. William himself arrived with 16,000 more in June 1690. William's troops were in general far better trained and equipped than James' were. The best Williamite infantry were from Denmark and the Netherlands, professional soldiers equipped with the latest flintlock muskets. There were also a large contingent of French Huguenot troops fighting with the Williamites. William did not have a high opinion of his British troops, with the exception of the Ulster Protestant irregulars who had held Ulster in the previous year. The English and Scottish troops were felt to be politically unreliable, since James had been their legitimate monarch up to a year before. Moreover, they had only been raised recently and had seen little combat. The Jacobites were 23,500 strong. James had several regiments of French troops, but most of his manpower was provided by Irish Catholics. The Jacobite's Irish cavalry, who were raised from among the dispossessed Irish gentry, proved themselves to be high calibre troops at the battle. However, the Irish infantry, predominantly peasants who had been pressed into service, were not trained soldiers. They had been hastily trained, badly supplied and only a minority of them had functional muskets. In fact, some of them at the Boyne carried only farm implements such as scythes. On top of that, the Jacobite infantry who had firearms were all equipped with the obsolete matchlock musket.


The Battle
William had landed in Carrickfergus in Ulster on June 14th, 1690 and marched south to take Dublin. It has been argued that the Jacobites should have tried to block this advance in rugged country around Newry, on the present day Irish border. However, James only fought a delaying action there and chose instead to place his line of defence on the Boyne river, around 50 km from Dublin. The Williamites reached the Boyne on the 29th of June. The day before the battle, William himself had a narrow escape, when he was wounded by Jacobite artillery while surveying the fords over which his troops would cross the river.

The battle itself was fought on July 1st over a ford of the Boyne at Oldbridge, near Drogheda. William sent about a quarter of his men to cross at a place called Roughgrange, near Slane, about 10 km from Oldbridge. The Duke of Schomberg's son Meinhardt led this crossing, which was unsuccessfully opposed by Irish dragoons. James panicked when he saw that he might be outflanked and sent half his troops, along with most of his cannon to counter this move. What neither side had realised was that there was a deep ravine at Roughgrange, so that the forces there could not engage each other, but literally sat out the battle. The Williamites there went on a long detour march which, late in the day, almost saw them cut off the Jacobite retreat at the village of Naul.

At the main ford at Oldbridge, William's infantry led by the elite Dutch Blue Guards forced their way across the river, using their superior firepower to slowly drive back the enemy foot-soldiers, but were pinned down by the counter-attacks of the Jacobite cavalry. Having secured the village of Oldbridge, some Williamite infantry held off successive cavalry attacks with disciplined volley fire while others were driven into the river. William's second in command, the Duke of Schomberg and George Walker were killed in this phase of the battle. The Williamites were not able to resume their advance until their own horsemen managed to cross the river and after being badly mauled, held off the Jacobite cavalry, who retired and regrouped at Donore, where they once again put up stiff resistance before retiring. The Jacobites retired in good order. William had a chance to trap the retreating Jacobites as they crossed the river Nanny at Duleek, but was held up by a successful Jacobite rear-guard.

The casualty figure of the battle was quite low for a battle of such a scale — of the 50,000 or so participants, about 2,000 died, three quarters of whom were Jacobites. The reason for the low death toll was that in contemporary warfare, most of the casualties tended to be inflicted in the pursuit of an already-beaten enemy. This did not happen at the Boyne because the counter-attacks of the Jacobite cavalry screened the retreat of the rest of their army. The Jacobites were badly demoralised by their defeat, however, and many of the Irish infantrymen deserted. The Williamites triumphantly marched into Dublin two days after the battle. The Jacobite army abandoned the city and marched to Limerick, behind the river Shannon, where they were besieged. James left so quickly that he outpaced the messenger that was sent to warn Limerick of the defeat.

After his defeat, James quickly returned to exile in France, even though his army left the field relatively unscathed. James's loss of nerve and speedy exit from the battlefield enraged his Irish supporters, who fought on until the Treaty of Limerick in 1691. In Irish folk memory, James was derisively nick-named Seamus a' chaca — "James the shit".


Aftermath

The battle was overshadowed in its time in Great Britain by the destruction of the Anglo-Dutch fleet by the French two days later off Beachy Head, a far more serious event in the short term; only on the Continent was the Boyne treated as a major victory. The reason for this was that it was the first proper victory for the League of Augsburg, the first ever alliance between Catholic and Protestant countries, and in achieving this William of Orange and Pope Alexander VIII (its prime movers) scotched the myth — particularly emanating from Sweden — that such an alliance was blasphemous, resulting in more joining the alliance and in effect ending the very real danger of a French conquest of Europe.

The Boyne was not without strategic significance in Britain and Ireland, however. It marked the end of James's hope of regaining his throne by military means and virtually assured the triumph of the Glorious Revolution. In Scotland, news of this defeat led to the Highlanders gradually abandoning the Jacobite Rising which Bonnie Dundee had led. In Ireland, the Boyne was the beginning of the Williamite victory over the Jacobites, which maintained British and Protestant dominance over the country. For this reason, the Boyne is still celebrated by the Protestant Orange Order on the twelfth of July.

wikipedia.org
 

Finder

House Member
Dec 18, 2005
3,786
0
36
Toronto
www.mytimenow.net
Hey if I remember right, in Highlander the TV series, MacCloud supported the Jacobite's. =-D

hmmm, if only the French had actually landed a bigger force. :twisted:
 

Colpy

Hall of Fame Member
Nov 5, 2005
21,819
695
113
67
Saint John, N.B.
To the glorious, pious and Immortal Memory of King William III, who saved us from Rogues and Roguery, Slaves and Slavery, Knaves and Knavery, Popes and Popery, from brass money and wooden shoes; and whoever denies this toast may he be slammed, crammed and jammed into the muzzle of the great gun of Athlone, and the gun fired into the Pope's belly, and the Pope into the Devil's belly, and the Devil into Hell, and the door locked and the key in an Orangeman's pocket.
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
England, and the rest of Britain, is overwhemingly Protestant.

That's why we should have Protestant monarchs and not Catholic monarchs.

Many people have tried to put a Catholic monarch on the throne of England but have usually failed.

The Jacobites failed in their attempts; Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic, tried to get rid of her cousin Elizabeth I and rule England - and paid for it with her head.

One that did succeed was Queen Mary. She was the half-brother King Edward VI. She became Queen in 1553 when he died and after a faction of Protestant nobles tried to put Lady Jane Grey, or the "nine day queen," on the throne. She was a devout Catholic, and when she came to the throne in 1553 (the first Queen of England since Queen Mathilda in the 12th Century) she tried to revert Protestant England back to its "old faith" - Catholicism. During her reign, she executed around 300 Protestants (even though England was overwhemingly a Protestant nation), either by burning them at the stake or having them hanged, drawn and quartered at the dreaded Tyburn. This earned her the nickname "Bloody Mary" (there are now cocktails named after her).

She even had the audacity to marry King Philip II of Spain, a Catholic country. This earned her the hatred of the English people, as they viewed Spain as the archenemy of England.

Luckily, she only reigned until 1558, then the Protestant Elizabeth I came to the throne. Elizabeth was Bloody Mary's half-sister, and Mary tried to convert her to Catholicism, but Elizabeth always stayed Protestant. When she became Queen, her Catholic cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots, tried to throw her off the throne (or have her killed) and become Queen of England, but failed. She was beheaded in 1587.
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
Queen "Bloody" Mary


Queen Mary I of England was born February 18, 1516, the daughter of King Henry VIII and his first of six wives, Catherine of Aragon. Mary was the only child from that union to survive infancy. She reigned as Queen of England from July 19, 1553 until her death on November 17, 1558.

The Early Years of Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I was alienated from her father, King Henry VIII, during his divorce (it was not a divorce in the modern sense, but an annulment) from her mother. As her parents' marriage was deemed null and void, Mary was then deemed illegitimate and thus deprived for a time of her status as an heir to the throne. This fueled her rage regarding her father’s break from the Roman Catholic Church, which had previously instructed him that he could not divorce from her mother. Mary felt that if her father, King Henry VIII, had obeyed the Roman Catholic Church, she would not be seen as “illegitimate, and her right to the throne would not have been questioned. This is the foundation upon which her loyalty to Rome was laid. By the time of King Henry VIII’s death, however, she had been restored as second in line to the throne, after her half-brother Edward, who was physically weak.

Queen Mary I Takes the Throne of England
It was not until 1553 that Edward died, however, by which time Protestantism had gained such ground that a rival claimant to the throne was put forward, Mary's cousin Lady Jane Grey. Public sympathy remained with Mary, and she soon overcame resistance to her accession. By July 19 Jane Grey had been deposed and Mary was the undisputed Queen. Her official coronation came on November 30, 1553 . Mary first began to earn her unofficial title of “Bloody Mary” when she had her cousin, Lady Jane Grey, executed to prevent any possible power struggle. It is generally believed that Mary might have spared Jane's life if it had not been for the intervention of the Spanish diplomats who conditioned Mary's marriage to their king on her executing Jane.

“Bloody Mary”… Relentless Papist and Mass-Murderer
Mary had always rejected and resented the break with Rome that her father had instituted and his subsequent establishment of the Anglican Church that had flowed from her half-brother's protestantism, and now she tried to turn England back to Roman Catholicism. This effort was carried out by force, and hundreds of Protestant leaders were executed. The first was John Rogers (a.k.a. “Thomas Matthews”), the printer of the “Matthews-Tyndale Bible”. His execution was followed by the execution of former Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, who was primarily responsible for the printing of the “Great Bible”. Hundreds more would follow in Mary’s bloody reign of terror. This earned the queen the title of “Bloody Mary”.

Her restoration of Catholicism was remarkable in some ways: Where only one bishop, John Fisher of Rochester, had resisted King Henry VIII’s rejection of Roman catholicism to the point that Henry had him executed; most of Mary's bishops were more loyal and refused to conform to the restored Protestantism under Elizabeth I, and they died under house arrest.

Mary’s Failure and Death
Mary's allegiance to Roman Catholicism inspired her to institute social reforms, but these were largely unsuccessful. Her marriage to Philip II of Spain, in 1554, was unpopular even with her Catholic subjects. Philip spent very little time with Mary, once he realized that she was not able to bear a child. Mary died at the age of 42 from uterine or ovarian cancer. She was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I, who quickly undid many of Mary's changes, and returned England to its former Protestant-friendly environment. This enabled the English refugees who had fled England to ever-neutral Geneva, Switzerland to print the “Geneva Bible”, to eventually come home and begin printing the Protestant Geneva Bible in England.

Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary…
Mary I of England is often confused with her cousin “Mary, Queen of Scots”, who lived at the same time. Many scholars trace the nursery rhyme "Mary, Mary, quite contrary… how does your garden grow… with silver bells and cockle shells and pretty maids all in a row" to Mary’s unpopular attempts to bring Roman Catholicism back to England, identifying the "cockle shells", for example, with the symbol of pilgrimage to the Catholic Shrine of St. James in Spain and the "pretty maids all in a row" with Catholic nuns.
 

Colpy

Hall of Fame Member
Nov 5, 2005
21,819
695
113
67
Saint John, N.B.
Finder said:
Colpy said:
Finder said:
nice toast?

Yeah.

From the early 19th Century, spoken in Orange Lodges all over the English-speaking world. 8O

I thought so.

Oddly enough there's an Orange lodge near my house. I wonder if I should be scared since Green run's in my family and I'm an Irish Republican. lol

Oh, don't worry.

We're much friendlier now.

At least in Canada. :D
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
Britain should rule Northern Ireland. We shouldn't give it to anyone, least of all to a country that secretly supported the Nazis in World War II.
 

cortez

Council Member
Feb 22, 2006
1,260
0
36
Re: RE: The Jacobite Rebellion.

Blackleaf said:
England, and the rest of Britain, is overwhemingly Protestant.

.

england is now mostly hindu and islamic

and anglican isnt REALLY a protestant religion is more like a regionally modified catholocism

you know catholic-lite
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
Re: RE: The Jacobite Rebellion.

cortez said:
Blackleaf said:
England, and the rest of Britain, is overwhemingly Protestant.

.

england is now mostly hindu and islamic

and anglican isnt REALLY a protestant religion is more like a regionally modified catholocism

you know catholic-lite

Rubbish. Only 3% of British people are Muslim - Britain has the smallest Muslim population (as a percentage of population) in Western Europe.

Compare that with France. 10% of French people are Muslim.
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
Catholicism is an evil religion. It's a religion whose leaders love having sex with young boys.
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
Nowhere near as rife as it is in the Catholic church. Try going to Ireland some day.
 

Blackleaf

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 9, 2004
46,521
1,377
113
2.7% of the British population is Muslim. That compares with 3.7% in Germany, 4.2% in Austria, 5.5% in Holland, and 10% in France.