About black holes

socratus

socratus
Dec 10, 2008
1,036
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Israel
www.worldnpa.org
Book: ''' Stephen Hawking. A life in science ''
''Together with Brandon Carter and Jim Bardeen, Hawking wrote a paper,
published in Communications in Mathematical Physics , pointing out . . .
the team commented, '' In fact the effective temperature of a black hole
is absolute zero . . . . No radiation could be emitted from the hole.''
/ page 156./
But later (!) , . . using concepts of entropy and Heisenberg uncertainty
principle and quantum fluctuations (!) Hawking changed his mind
and wrote that black holes can radiate.
/ Book: ''' Stephen Hawking. A life in science '' by Michael White and John Gribbin/
#
So, in the beginning ( according to calculations) the ''black hole''
had absolute zero temperature (like the Cosmic Vacuum: T=0K) . . .
but . . . thanks to entropy, Heisenberg uncertainty principle and
quantum fluctuations the absolute zero temperature was changed.
Conclusion:
Cosmic Vacuum and black holes are one and the same system.
Black holes are parts of the infinite Cosmic Vacuum.
 

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socratus

socratus
Dec 10, 2008
1,036
9
38
Israel
www.worldnpa.org
1- A black hole has a temperature within a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero
/ Oxford. Dictionary./
2- A stellar black hole of one solar mass has a Hawking temperature of about 100 nanokelvins.
This is far less than the 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic microwave background Black hole
/Wikipedia/
3- A black hole of one solar mass (M☉) has a temperature of only 60 nanokelvin (60 billionths of a kelvin)
/ Wikipedia /
 

socratus

socratus
Dec 10, 2008
1,036
9
38
Israel
www.worldnpa.org
At the core of the Milky Way galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole
of about 4.3 million solar masses.
Supermassive black holes with a mass between 0.1 million and 10 billion M☉.
Some astronomers have begun labeling black holes of at least 10 billion M☉
as ultramassive black holes.
Even larger ones have been dubbed stupendously large black holes (SLABs)
with masses greater than 100 billion M☉.
Some studies have suggested that the maximum mass that a black hole can reach,
while being luminous accretors, is of the order of ~50 billion M☉.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermassive_black_hole