About black holes

socratus

socratus
Dec 10, 2008
1,048
9
38
Israel
www.worldnpa.org
Book: ''' Stephen Hawking. A life in science ''
''Together with Brandon Carter and Jim Bardeen, Hawking wrote a paper,
published in Communications in Mathematical Physics , pointing out . . .
the team commented, '' In fact the effective temperature of a black hole
is absolute zero . . . . No radiation could be emitted from the hole.''
/ page 156./
But later (!) , . . using concepts of entropy and Heisenberg uncertainty
principle and quantum fluctuations (!) Hawking changed his mind
and wrote that black holes can radiate.
/ Book: ''' Stephen Hawking. A life in science '' by Michael White and John Gribbin/
#
So, in the beginning ( according to calculations) the ''black hole''
had absolute zero temperature (like the Cosmic Vacuum: T=0K) . . .
but . . . thanks to entropy, Heisenberg uncertainty principle and
quantum fluctuations the absolute zero temperature was changed.
Conclusion:
Cosmic Vacuum and black holes are one and the same system.
Black holes are parts of the infinite Cosmic Vacuum.
 

Attachments

  • Ttemperature-BH.jpg
    Ttemperature-BH.jpg
    6.9 KB · Views: 0

socratus

socratus
Dec 10, 2008
1,048
9
38
Israel
www.worldnpa.org
1- A black hole has a temperature within a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero
/ Oxford. Dictionary./
2- A stellar black hole of one solar mass has a Hawking temperature of about 100 nanokelvins.
This is far less than the 2.7 K temperature of the cosmic microwave background Black hole
/Wikipedia/
3- A black hole of one solar mass (M☉) has a temperature of only 60 nanokelvin (60 billionths of a kelvin)
/ Wikipedia /
 

socratus

socratus
Dec 10, 2008
1,048
9
38
Israel
www.worldnpa.org
At the core of the Milky Way galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole
of about 4.3 million solar masses.
Supermassive black holes with a mass between 0.1 million and 10 billion M☉.
Some astronomers have begun labeling black holes of at least 10 billion M☉
as ultramassive black holes.
Even larger ones have been dubbed stupendously large black holes (SLABs)
with masses greater than 100 billion M☉.
Some studies have suggested that the maximum mass that a black hole can reach,
while being luminous accretors, is of the order of ~50 billion M☉.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermassive_black_hole
 

socratus

socratus
Dec 10, 2008
1,048
9
38
Israel
www.worldnpa.org
At the core of the Milky Way galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole
of about 4.3 million solar masses.
Supermassive black holes with a mass between 0.1 million and 10 billion M☉.
Some astronomers have begun labeling black holes of at least 10 billion M☉
as ultramassive black holes.
Even larger ones have been dubbed stupendously large black holes (SLABs)
with masses greater than 100 billion M☉.
Some studies have suggested that the maximum mass that a black hole can reach,
while being luminous accretors, is of the order of ~50 billion M☉.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermassive_black_hole
#
A black hole with the same mass as the Sun would have a temperature of about 0.06 millionth of a kelvin.
Actual black holes are even larger (at least about three times as massive as the Sun)
so their temperature is less than 0.02 millionth of a kelvin.
#
1- In classical theory black holes are objects with temperature T=0K. Cosmic vacuum
has the same temperature. This means that black holes are part of the Cosmic Vacuum.

2- In quantum theory, due to entropy, quantum fluctuations of "virtual particles",
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, the Cosmic Vacuum (so-called black holes) will constantly vibrate.

3- A black holes will radiate at any temperature above absolute zero,
but at very cold temperatures it is very difficult to detect.

Conclusion:
Black holes are parts of the infinite/eternal Cosmic Vacuum.
The black holes are actually camouflaged the structure of the pure Cosmic Vacuum.
-------
‘'The problem of the exact description ofvacuum, in my opinion, is the basic problem now before physics.
Really, if you can’t correctly describe the vacuum, how it ispossible to expect a correct description
of something more complex?''
/Paul Dirac /
#
Book ''The FermiSolution'''': something seemswrong with our idea of the vacuum.
It is we who abhor a vacuum, who recoil fromthe stillness of the void as from an open grave.''
/Page 37-38, by Hans Christian von Baeyer/
-----
Thermodynamics of the perfect Cosmic Vacuum (aka black holes) is perfectly
in agreement with temperature and laws of Ideal Gas.
=====
 

Attachments

  • k-Ideal-gas-law.png
    k-Ideal-gas-law.png
    15.7 KB · Views: 0

spaminator

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 26, 2009
32,856
2,482
113
Closest known black hole to Earth spotted by astronomers
Author of the article:Associated Press
Associated Press
Marcia Dunn
Publishing date:Nov 04, 2022 • 19 hours ago • 1 minute read • Join the conversation
This illustration provided by NOIRLab in November 2022 depicts the closest black hole to Earth and its Sun-like companion star.
This illustration provided by NOIRLab in November 2022 depicts the closest black hole to Earth and its Sun-like companion star. PHOTO BY INTERNATIONAL GEMINI OBSERVATORY/NOIRLAB/NSF/AURA/J. DA SILVA/SPACEENGINE/M. ZAMANI /THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. — Astronomers have discovered the closest known black hole to Earth, just 1,600 light-years away.


Scientists reported Friday that this black hole is 10 times more massive than our sun. And it’s three times closer than the previous record-holder.


It was identified by observing the motion of its companion star, which orbits the black hole at about the same distance as Earth orbits the sun.

The black hole was initially identified using the European Space Agency’s Gaia spacecraft, said Kareem El-Badry of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

El-Badry and his team followed up with the International Gemini Observatory in Hawaii to confirm their findings, which were published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The researchers are uncertain how the system formed in the Milky Way. Named Gaia BH1, it’s located in the constellation Ophiuchus, the serpent-bearer.
1668454896558.png
 

spaminator

Hall of Fame Member
Oct 26, 2009
32,856
2,482
113
Distant black hole is caught in the act of annihilating a star
Author of the article:Reuters
Reuters
Will Dunham
Publishing date:Nov 30, 2022 • 22 hours ago • 2 minute read
This handout picture released on Nov. 30, 2022 by Nature Publishing Group shows an artist impression illustrating observations of a rare tidal disruption event (TDE), bursts of energy released when a star is torn apart by a supermassive black hole.
This handout picture released on Nov. 30, 2022 by Nature Publishing Group shows an artist impression illustrating observations of a rare tidal disruption event (TDE), bursts of energy released when a star is torn apart by a supermassive black hole. PHOTO BY CARL KNOX/NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP /AFP via Getty Images
WASHINGTON — Astronomers have detected an act of extreme violence more than halfway across the known universe as a black hole shreds a star that wandered too close to this celestial savage. But this was no ordinary instance of a ravenous black hole.


It was one of only four examples – and the first since 2011 – of a black hole observed in the act of tearing apart a passing star in what is called a tidal disruption event and then launching luminous jets of high-energy particles in opposite directions into space, researchers said. And it was both the furthest and brightest such event on record.


Astronomers described the event in studies published on Wednesday in the journals Nature and Nature Astronomy.

The culprit appears to be a supermassive black hole believed to be hundreds of millions of times the mass of our sun located roughly 8.5 billion light years away from Earth. A light year is the distance light travels in a year, 9.5 trillion km.

“We think that the star was similar to our sun, perhaps more massive but of a common kind,” said astronomer Igor Andreoni of the University of Maryland and NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, lead author of one of the studies.


The event was detected in February through the Zwicky Transient Facility astronomical survey using a camera attached to a telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. The distance was calculated using the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile.

“When a star dangerously approaches a black hole – no worries, this will not happen to the sun – it is violently ripped apart by the black hole’s gravitational tidal forces -similar to how the moon pulls tides on Earth but with greater strength,” said University of Minnesota astronomer and study co-author Michael Coughlin. (See animation of tidal disruption event)

“Then, pieces of the star are captured into a swiftly spinning disk orbiting the black hole. Finally, the black hole consumes what remains of the doomed star in the disk. In some very rare cases, which we estimated to be 100 times rarer, powerful jets of material are launched in opposite directions when the tidal disruption event occurs,” Coughlin added.


Andreoni and Coughlin said the black hole was likely spinning rapidly, which might help explain how the two powerful jets were launched into space at almost the speed of light.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology astronomer Dheeraj Pasham, lead author of the other study, said the researchers were able to observe the event very early on – within a week of the black hole starting to consume the doomed star.

While researchers detect tidal disruption events about twice per month, ones that produce jets are extremely rare. One of the jets emanating from this black hole seems to be pointing toward Earth, making it appear brighter than if it were heading in another direction – an effect called “Doppler boosting” that is similar to the enhanced sound of a passing police siren.

The supermassive black hole is believed to reside at the centre of a galaxy – much as the Milky Way and most galaxies have one of these at their core. But the tidal disruption event was so bright that it obscured the light of the galaxy’s stars.

“At its peak, the source appeared brighter than 1,000 trillion suns,” Pasham said.
AFP_32WG42R-scaled-e1669841463820[1].jpg