Richard III was riddled with roundworm


Blackleaf
#1
King Richard III, whose remains were found last year under a car park in Leicester, suffered from roundworm, analysis has revealed.

Scientists found roundworm eggs in a soil sample taken from the pelvis of the skeleton of the king, which was discovered last year by archaeologists at the University of Leicester.

Since the body of King Richard III was found, scientists have been undertaking careful analysis of the remains, in an attempt to shed further light on the attributes and history of the controversial king.

For centuries it was believed by many of Richard III's supporters that he wasn't as bad as many believe him to be - for example, he is rumoured to have murdered his nephews, the Princes in the Tower, one of whom was King Edward V, although their fate still remains a mystery - and that his bad reputation was started by the Tudors, who were the ones who defeated him, and that it was they, including Shakespeare, who falsely claimed that he was a hunchback in order to make him look evil.

But the remains of Richard III show that the Tudors were actually right - Richard III did indeed have a hunchback.

The Yorkist King Richard III was killed and defeated by the Lancastrian forces of Henry Tudor during the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 - Henry Tudor became King Henry VII, the first Tudor monarch.

Richard III was riddled with ROUNDWORM in his dying days, analysis of skeleton reveals








  • University of Cambridge research revealed multiple roundworm eggs in the soil sample taken from the pelvis, where the intestines would have been
  • The situation of the eggs suggests the king suffered a genuine roundworm infection during his life
  • Despite Richard’s social status, it appears that his lifestyle did not protect him from the intestinal parasite infection, which was common at the time
By Sarah Griffiths
4 September 2013



Richard III (a model of how he looked, based on his skull, is pictured) not only had a hunchback but he also suffered from roundworm infection, new research has revealed

Richard III not only had a hunchback but he also suffered from roundworm infection, research has revealed.

Scientists found roundworm eggs in a soil sample taken from the pelvis of the skeleton of the king, which was discovered last year by archaeologists at the University of Leicester.

Since the body of King Richard III was found, scientists have been undertaking careful analysis of the remains, in an attempt to shed further light on the attributes and history of the controversial king.

A team of researchers led by Dr Piers Mitchell, of the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Cambridge, used a powerful microscope to examine soil samples taken from the skeleton’s pelvis and skull, as well as from the soil surrounding the grave.

The microscope revealed multiple roundworm eggs in the soil sample taken from the pelvis, where the intestines would have been situated in life.

However, there was no sign of eggs in soil from the skull and very few eggs in the soil that surrounded the grave, suggesting that the eggs found in the pelvis area resulted from a genuine roundworm infection during his life, rather than from external contamination by the later dumping of human waste in the area.

Roundworms are parasitic nematodes which infect humans when people ingest their eggs via contaminated food, water, or soil.


There was no sign of eggs in soil from the skeleton's skull and very few eggs in the soil that surrounded the grave, suggesting that the eggs found in the pelvis area resulted from a genuine roundworm infection during the king's life. Roundworms are pictured


Dr Jo Appleby at the University of Leicester, said: 'Despite Richard's noble background, it appears that his lifestyle did not protect him from intestinal parasite infection, which would have been very common at the time.' The skeleton of Richard III, which was discovered at the Grey Friars excavation site in Leicester, is pictured

Once eaten, the eggs hatch into larvae, which migrate through the tissues of the body to the lungs where they mature.

They then crawl up the airways to the throat to be swallowed back into the intestines, where they can grow into adults around a foot long.

Roundworm infection is thought to be one of the common health conditions in the world, affecting up to a quarter of all people globally, although it is rare in Britain today.

Dr Mitchell said: 'Our results show that Richard was infected with roundworms in his intestines, although no other species of intestinal parasite were present in the samples we studied.


On screen: Aneurin Barnard plays Richard, Duke of Gloucester - the future Richard III - in the BBC TV series The White Queen


Also featured: Other characters in The White Queen include (l-r) Lady Margaret Beaufort , the Lancastrian mother of Henry Tudor, who would defeat Richard at Bosworth to become Henry VII, the first Tudor monarch (played by Amanda Hale), Elizabeth Woodville, the wife of Richard's brother Edward IV and the grandmother of the future Henry VIII (Rebecca Ferguson) and Richard's consort Anne Neville (Faye Marsay)


'We would expect nobles of this period to have eaten meats such as beef, pork and fish regularly, but there was no evidence for the eggs of the beef, pork or fish tapeworm. This may suggest that his food was cooked thoroughly, which would have prevented the transmission of these parasites.'

Dr Jo Appleby, lecturer in human bioarchaeology at the University of Leicester, said: 'Despite Richard’s noble background, it appears that his lifestyle did not completely protect him from intestinal parasite infection, which would have been very common at the time.'

The Dig for Richard III was led by the University of Leicester, working with Leicester City Council and in association with the Richard III Society.

WHAT ARE ROUNDWORMS?

Roundworms are parasitic nematodes which infect humans when people ingest their eggs via contaminated food, water, or soil.

Once eaten, the eggs hatch into larvae, which migrate through the tissues of the body to the lungs where they mature.

They then crawl up the airways to the throat to be swallowed back into the intestines, where they can grow into adults around a foot long.






Read more: Was Richard III troubled by a medical condition in his dying days? Analysis reveals he was suffering with ROUNDWORM | Mail Online
Last edited by Blackleaf; Sep 4th, 2013 at 12:12 PM..
 
Walter
#2
It's so cool that they found him.
 
coldstream
#3
This whole thing sounds TOO serendipitous to believe. Some amateur acheologists stumble across his grave in a parking lot... under a space marked "R".. conforming to spinal curvature of Richard... but not to some other elements regarding his injuries in original reports.. notably a head wound inflicted after his death. I think its likely that he was tossed into the River Soar as is traditionally held.. and at some point the shoe will drop revealing this all as an elaborate hoax.
 
Blackleaf
#4
Quote: Originally Posted by coldstream View Post

This whole thing sounds TOO serendipitous to believe. Some amateur acheologists stumble across his grave in a parking lot... under a space marked "R".. conforming to spinal curvature of Richard... but not to some other elements regarding his injuries.. notably a head wound inflicted after his death. I think its likely that he was tossed into the River Soar.. and at some point the shoe will drop revealing this all as an elaborate hoax.

The skeleton did have head wounds, eight of them.

At least one of these injuries to his skull did come after death - so-called "insult injuries". Other insult injuries seem to have occurred elsewhere on his body.

These 'insult injuries' might have included the small stab wound to the face; a stab in the back from behind, which struck a rib and, perhaps most tellingly of all, a stab wound, possibly delivered with a knife or dagger, to the buttocks. This last, insulting, blow could easily have been delivered to king's body by an infantryman** *with a bladed weapon after it had been slung over the back of a horse, as he was borne to Leicester. *

Leeds expert pieces together how Richard III died | Calendar - ITV News



The major wounds are to the base of the skull, either side of the spine, and would have been caused by heavy bladed weapons
 
Walter
+1
#5  Top Rated Post
Quote: Originally Posted by coldstream View Post

This whole thing sounds TOO serendipitous to believe. Some amateur acheologists stumble across his grave in a parking lot... under a space marked "R".. conforming to spinal curvature of Richard... but not to some other elements regarding his injuries in original reports.. notably a head wound inflicted after his death. I think its likely that he was tossed into the River Soar as is traditionally held.. and at some point the shoe will drop revealing this all as an elaborate hoax.

DNA says otherwise.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2...d-remains.html
 
Blackleaf
#6
Leicester Cathedral is being prepared to be the new resting place of Richard III.

But a poll conducted of readers of the BBC's History Extra website - the website of popular BBC History Magazine - has revealed that most want Richard to be buried at York.

53 per cent voted for York, 33 per cent Leicester, 12 per cent Westminster Abbey - the traditional burial place of British monarchs and many other British notables such as poets, scientists (Darwin is buried there), writers (D ickens), and some politicians - and two per cent ‘other’.

Earlier this month a High Court judge gave permission for descendants of the king’s relatives to challenge plans to rebury his remains in Leicester rather than York.

The 15-strong Plantagenet Alliance wants the remains buried in York, which, it claims, Richard regarded as his home.

Speaking after the High Court judgement earlier this month, Richard Van Allen of the Richard III Society said the dispute about where Richard III should be reburied is becoming “undignified”.

Richard was, after all a Yorkist, his father being Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and Richard spent several years of his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, Yorkshire, under the tutelage of his cousin Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (later known as the "Kingmaker" because of his role in the Wars of the Roses).

So it's not hard to see why most want Richard III to be buried as York.


Richard III spent several years of his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale (an area famous for its cheese of the same name) in Yorkshire

Richard III should be buried at York Minster according to historyextra poll | History Extra
 
damngrumpy
#7
The Tudors, never did like them. Need the Scots back in charge under the line
from Stuart the II.
 
EagleSmack
#8
Quote: Originally Posted by damngrumpy View Post

The Tudors, never did like them. Need the Scots back in charge under the line
from Stuart the II.

Whats wrong with the current ruling German family?
 
spaminator
#9
it reminds me of a documentary called, 'eaten alive.'
 
Blackleaf
#10
Quote: Originally Posted by damngrumpy View Post

The Tudors, never did like them. Need the Scots back in charge under the line
from Stuart the II.

The Stuarts were a bunch of Absolute Monarchists who believed in their Divine Right to rule, which resulted in one of them getting his head chopped of and another one - his son - being ousted during the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

Ousting the Stuarts was the best thing to happen.

There are a few modern Jacobites who wish the Stuarts were back, but no true democrat would dream of it.