In 1992, after the fall of the Communists, Kabul, traditionally a Pushtun city, fell under control of Tajiks Rabbani and Massoud and an Uzbek Doustum. This has immediately provoked a new war — this time between the mujaheds themselves — when Pushtun Hikmetyar besieged Kabul. Since nobody could realistically win that war, the situation has run into a dead end, and the country has been divided between the warlords.
Doustum controlled six provinces in the North. Three western provinces around Herat belonged to Ismail Khan. Rabbani governed Kabul and North-East. Jalalabad was managed collectively by the local warlords. Hikmetyar seized a small region near Kabul and also controlled some Pushtun areas near the Pakistani border. The center of the country belonged to the ethnic group of Hazaras.
Kandahar area has got the worst deal — there was no single controlling force there, and the region was torn apart by the feuding warlords and plain gangsters. The city itself has been divided between hostile groups.
Birth of the Taliban
Afghan refugees did not rush to return to their homeland from Pakistan after the Soviet troops have been withdrawn. The Taliban has been born exactly there, among the mujahed veterans, many of whom have been studying in theological schools at the time. The name itself means “students”. When the international community has almost completely forgotten Afghanistan, the talibs thought they could be the only force that could still bring peace to their home. After prolonged discussions, they have created a program with clear goals and yet unclear means. They were going to restore peace, disarm the population, and realign the social life with the Islamic customs. Muhammed Omar has been elected as the leader of the movement. He was 35 at the time.
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