Quote: Originally Posted by Hoid
DO you honestly think anyone reads any of the dozens of links you post day after day?
**** knows you don't read them yourself.
That doesn't change that it was the UK that put the border where it is.
During the 19th century the British Empire had parliamentary governments spanning the entire globe controlling their interests and their nationalist ideals. By the late 19th century the Indian people had become tired of the British rule and revolutionaries banded together to create the Indian National Congress. The Congress was originally created for the idea of making reforms within the British parliamentary government by placing greater prevalence on such issues as a better educational system and greater representation of the Indian population within the parliamentary government. During this period, many Indian revolutionaries terrorized government institutions as well as confronted the British military. These revolutionary groups attempted to force the Indian ideas of self-government upon the British parliament. By the early 20th century the British government was attempting to subdue the Indian uprisings by granting the Congress more political power. But the British had taken too long to share its political power and Indian extremists were demanding a complete independence from British rule. In 1916 several Indian nationalist groups united to support the British in World War I, but overall most of the nationalist groups had become frustrated with the unattained goal of self-rule that had been proclaimed years earlier, to be the eventual goal of the British rule within the region.
Many of the Indian nationalist groups were demanding immediate and complete self-government for India by the early 20th century, but the British were refusing to let go of their economic interests quickly. In 1919 the British parliament passed several laws restricting political activity of the Indian nationalist groups and committed acts in which they violated the civil rights of both the revolutionary groups and the general Indian public. These civil right violations incited many of the Indian people and helped press the demands of the Congress. With the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi in the 1920's the Indian Congress became a very threatening power. Also during the 1920's the Muslims were strongly resenting the political hold that the Hindus had gained because of the Congress and staged a Muslim withdrawal from the Congress in protest of the religious dominance.
As India pressed for its independence the Miislims began to separate themselves from the Hindu political organi7ations. In 1907 the Muslim community created its own nationalist organization the Muslim Icague. By 1910 there were two dominant and completely separate revolutionary factions within Jndia that not only fought against the British rule but each other. As the British rule was becoming more threatened by revolutionaries and the Hindu dominated Congress became more powerful. the Muslim League pressed for the senaration of Muslim people from the British ruled India The Muslim League and the Congress constantly clashed on important issues and weakened the political strength that the Indian people were buildin~ within the British parliament. But even with the conflicts between the two religions one thing was clear all of the Indian people were demandina self-rule for the whole of the Indian sub-continen4. The tension between the British rule and both the Congress and the League were escalating into confrontation within both the political and social arenas. At the end of the World War, Britain was drained economically and unable to maintain its rule over its vast empire. So in 1946 Britain gave tip control of the Indian sub-continent and the Con~ess and League voted to partition the country into two senarate nations based on religion separation. The nations of India and Pakistan were formed in 1947 where the nation of India was religiously senarated for the H indu population and Pakistan was for the Muslim people.
The shift from British rule to separate independently ruled nations of India and Pakistan was to occur within six months after the nlebiscite and resulted in a violent collision of uprooted Muslims and Hindus Millions of neonle were forced from their respective homes because of religious boundaries between the nations Refugees from either border were not the only problem that the new governments were forced to deal with, they also had to somehow divide up military, financial, and natural resources. There also needed to be draw boundaries between the two countries.
As refugees moved from one nation to their new homes, confrontations broke out, and in rapidly growing numbers. Before long, there was full-fledged fighting along the boarder of the nations. Both newly formed governments struggled to preserve law and order while continuously bickered with each other over the splitting of resources. Pakistan demanded a greater share of the resources while India protested that Pakistan was demanding an unfair split of resources. The primary source for the boundary debate, was a region of the sub-continent that separated the northern border of India and the southeastern border of Pakistan, called Jammu and Kashmir.
During the early British imperial expansion efforts, the British government sold the Kashmir territory to the Hindu Prince Ghulab Singh and this family controlled the region for nearly a hundred years. As the British began to remove its influence from the region the maharajah was offered the chance to join either the Indian nation or the Pakistani nation. There were many other regions controlled by local principals that were also given the option to join one of these two nations, and in general the Hindu states joined with India and the Islamic states joined with Pakistan. At this time Kashmir was being ruled by a Hindu maharajah but the general population was Muslim, and this gave pause to the decision to join either India or Pakistan. At the hesitation to join either side a popular uprising moved through the capital and forced the maharajah to flee for his life. The maharajah quickly made his way to India where he signed an agreement to turn the state over the India in return for personal protection. India quickly moved troops into Kashmir to quiet the revolutionaries, while Pakistan responded with troops of their own to help keep their religious brethren from falling under the control of the Hindu controlled Indian government. For the next three years the Indian and Pakistani troops fought over the territory where thousands of military and civilians were tortured and killed by both sides. In 1949 a cease-fire was called and Kashmir was divided up into two unequal parts, an eastern portion which is controlled by India and a much smaller territory to the west which is controlled by Pakistan.