It takes a special kind of person to try and rewrite the past Walnut, a lot sicker in the mind than almost anything alive on the planet. How does that make you feel?
Killing 90% of the population using bio-war fare methods is a bit more criminal minded than your average snowflake Walnut.
Like South Africa and Australia that is the 'first shot' in a way between the 'whites' and the local populations.
Who would soldiers risk their lives when disease will do the work for them?? Only a liar would say they were a last resort and only an idiot would believe it.
The arrival of Europeans also brought on the Columbian Exchange
. During this period European settlers brought many different technologies and lifestyles with them; arguably the most harmful effect of this exchange was the arrival and spread of disease.
Numerous diseases were brought to North America, including bubonic plague
, the common cold
, scarlet fever
, sexually transmitted diseases
, and pertussis (whooping cough)
Each of these brought destruction through sweeping epidemics, involving disability, illness, and extensive deaths.
Native Americans, due to the lack of prior contact with Europeans, had not previously been exposed to the diseases that were prevalent on the distant continent. Therefore, they had not built up internal immunities to the diseases or formed any medicines to combat them. Europeans came into the New World bearing various diseases. Those infected with diseases either possessed them in a dormant state or were not quarantined in such a way that distanced them enough from Native Americans not to spread the diseases, allowing them to spread into epidemics.
The trade of Native American captives, and the use of commercial trade routes continued the spread of disease.
The diseases brought by Europeans are not easily tracked, since there were numerous outbreaks and all were not equally recorded. The first documented epidemic was 1616–1619 (often known as the Great Dying
The most destructive disease brought by Europeans was smallpox
. The Lakota Indians called the disease the running face sickness.
Smallpox was lethal to many Native Americans, bringing sweeping epidemics and affecting the same tribes repeatedly.
Between 1837 and 1870, at least four different epidemics struck the Plains tribes.
When the plains Indians began to learn of the "white man’s diseases", they intentionally avoided contact with them and their trade goods. But many tribes were enamored with things like metal pots, skillets and knives, and they traded with the white newcomers anyway, inadvertently spreading diseases to their villages.
Certain cultural and biological traits made Native Americans more susceptible to these diseases. Emphasis placed on visiting the sick led to the spread of disease through consistent contact.
Native Americans first exposed to these diseases also had a unique approach to illness, relating primarily to religious beliefs. There is the belief that disease is caused by either a lack of charm use, an intrusion of an object by means of sorcery, or the free soul's absence from the body. Disease was understood to enter the body if one is not protected by the spirits, as it is a natural occurrence. Religious powers were believed to be related to curing diseases as well.
Native American illness has been treated through the practice of shamanism
in the past, though this decreased as the influence of Europeans increased.
Disease evolution and host pathogen interactions should be considered in Native American disease history. Disease evolution is the result of the interaction of the following parameters: hosts, parasites, and setting. Such an example of disease evolution is the direct biological effects of crowding that directly influences a host’s susceptibility to disease. Research by Power et al. (199
demonstrated that, at low doses of micro-bacterial pathogens, hosts were able to make an appropriate immune response and avoid tuberculosis; higher doses resulted in a less efficient form of a vaccination. The crowding that was a result of widespread relocation and concentration of native groups by the expanding America greatly impacted the susceptibility native people initially had to the foreign diseases.
Impact on population numbers
Many Native American tribes experienced great depopulation, averaging 25–50 percent of the tribes' members lost to disease. Additionally, smaller tribes neared extinction after facing a severely destructive spread of disease.
The significant toll that this took is expounded upon in the article Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
. A specific example was Cortes' invasion of Mexico. Before his arrival, the Mexican population is estimated to have been around 25 to 30 million. Fifty years later, the Mexican population was reduced to 3 million, mainly by infectious disease. This shows the main effect of the arrival of Europeans in the new world. With no natural immunity against these pathogens, Native Americans died in huge numbers. Yale historian David Brion Davis describes this as "the greatest genocide in the history of man. Yet it's increasingly clear that most of the carnage had nothing to do with European barbarism. The worst of the suffering was caused not by swords or guns but by germs."
By 1700, less than five thousand Native Americans remained in the southeastern coastal region.
In Florida alone, there were seven hundred thousand Native Americans in 1520, but by 1700 the number was around 2000.
In summer 1639, a smallpox epidemic struck the Huron
natives in the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes
regions. The disease had reached the Huron tribes through traders returning from Québec and remained in the region throughout the winter. When the epidemic was over, the Huron population had been reduced to roughly 9000 people, about half of what it had been before 1634.
The Iroquios people faced similar losses.
Disease did not only have a direct impact on death, but an indirect impact as well. Losses from disease weakened communities, as they had fewer people to contribute to their community. There were fewer people to hunt, plant crops, and otherwise support their society through other physical means.
Loss of cultural knowledge transfer also impacted the population. By missing the right time to hunt or plant the crops, the food supply would be affected, thus weakening the community from not having enough food, and becoming more vulnerable for the next epidemic.
Communities were also impacted by disease if many of their population who regularly did the physical tasks of providing food and water suddenly could not. The communities under such crisis were often unable to care for the disabled, elderly, or young.
The towns where “consumptive” immigrants collected included Beaufort West, Cradock and Burgersdorp in the Karoo, with Cape Town being the main port of entry.6 The threat such imported cases of TB represented for the native-born populations of the colony, both black and white, was not appreciated prior to 1895, and indeed the infectious nature of TB had only been discovered in 1884.
The arrival of the eastern Europeans
Alongside the Europeans who came to South Africa to improve their health were thousands of impoverished eastern Europeans. Most came from countries with a high prevalence of TB, and most had been infected with TB at some point in their lives. The prospects of most of these eastern European refugees were poor. Prevented from making a reasonable living, and unable to properly care for and feed themselves or their families, these settlers often suffered reactivation of their disease and became open sources of infection within the community.
The effect of TB on mortality rates in the “consumptive” resorts of South Africa
The absence of legislation requiring the registration of deaths in the Cape Colony, or indeed elsewhere in South Africa before 1895 made it impossible to assess the impact that TB was having on mortality rates. Unaware of the potential consequences of the immigration of people with TB, town officials in the Cape Colony initially made no effort to limit the spread of infection among the town’s non infected inhabitants.7
However in 1895 it was said by Dr Gregory, the Medical Officer of Health for Cape Colony that “of all the diseases attacking the natives and Coloured” (of Cape Colony) “tuberculosis is by far the most important”.8 The situation was similar in other “consumptive resorts” of the colony and in 1896 the death rate from TB among Africans and coloreds in Beaufort West was 8.7 per 1,000.9
With compulsory notification of TB occurring towards the end of the century, the district surgeon for Aliwal North was able to estimate that the mortality rate in 1897 for whites in Aliwal North was 19.9 per 1,000 and among the native born white population of the town it was 13.6 per 1,000. For the African population there was an annual incidence of 62 per 1,000 which is so extraordinarily high that it is possible that it was an over diagnosis of cases.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook
claimed the east coast of Australia in the name of the United Kingdom
and named it New South Wales. Cook's declaration was made unilaterally and without any consultation with First Australians, in spite of his direct written orders from The Admiralty, which instructed him to conclude a treaty with the inhabitants (if any) and obtain their permission for the expropriation of land. British colonisation of Australia began in Sydney in 1788. The most immediate consequence of British settlement – within weeks of the first colonists' arrival – was a wave of European epidemic diseases such as chickenpox
, which spread in advance of the frontier of settlement. The worst-hit communities were the ones with the greatest population densities, where disease could spread more readily. In the arid centre of the continent, where small communities were spread over a vast area, the population decline was less marked. Disease was the principal cause of population decline.
The second consequence of British settlement was appropriation of land and water resources. The settlers took the view that Aboriginal Australians were nomads with no concept of land ownership, who could be driven off land wanted for farming or grazing and who would be just as happy somewhere else. In fact the loss of traditional lands, food sources and water resources was often fatal, particularly to communities already weakened by disease. Additionally, Aboriginal Australians groups had a deep spiritual and cultural connection to the land, so that in being forced to move away from traditional areas, cultural and spiritual practices necessary to the cohesion and well-being of the group could not be maintained. Proximity to settlers also brought venereal disease
, to which Aboriginal Australians had no tolerance and which greatly reduced Aboriginal fertility and birthrates. Settlers also brought alcohol, opium and tobacco, and substance abuse
has remained a chronic problem for Aboriginal communities ever since. Entire communities in the moderately fertile southern part of the continent simply vanished without trace, often before European settlers arrived or recorded their existence.
Deadly infectious diseases
like smallpox, influenza and tuberculosis
were always major causes of Aboriginal deaths.
Smallpox alone killed more than 50% of the Aboriginal population.
In 1789, a disastrous smallpox epidemic broke out, killing up to 70% of the Indigenous people of the Sydney region. Based on information recorded in the journals of some members of the First Fleet
, it has been surmised that the Aborigines of the Sydney region had never encountered the disease before and lacked immunity to it. Unable to understand or counter the sickness, they often fled, leaving the sick with some food and water to fend for themselves. As the clans fled, the epidemic spread further along the coast and into the hinterland. This had a disastrous effect on Aboriginal society; with many of the productive hunters and gatherers
dead, those who survived the initial outbreak began to starve.
Lieutenant William Bradley
recorded the first indications of the severity of the disaster that had struck the Aboriginal population of Sydney when he described his shock at the small number of them to be seen on the harbour and its shores compared with previous times. The British had not seen smallpox in anyone among themselves before the outbreak. Although there were fears about the health of some of the convicts on the First Fleet, these were subsequently dismissed by Surgeon-General John White who believed they were suffering from "slight inflammatory complaints".
The origin of the smallpox epidemic is controversial, and it has been speculated that the surgeons on board the First Fleet brought vials of smallpox matter and either accidentally or intentionally released it as a "biological weapon
In 2014, writing in Journal of Australian Studies
, Christopher Warren concluded that British marines were most likely to have spread smallpox, possibly without informing Governor Phillip but conceded in his conclusion that "today's evidence only provides for a balancing of probabilities and this is all that can be attempted."