Viking Age 793 A.D - 1066 A.D (793 Ad)


Jersay
#1
Quote:

The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 and 1066 AD in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). During this period, the Vikings, Scandinavian warriors, leidangs and traders, raided and explored most parts of Europe, south-western Asia, northern Africa and north-eastern North America. Apart from exploring Europe by way of its oceans and rivers with the aid of their advanced navigational skills and extending their trading routes across vast parts of the continent, they also engaged in warfare and looted and enslaved numerous Christian communities of Medieval Europe for centuries, contributing to the development of feudal systems in Europe, which included castles and barons (which were a defense against Viking raids).

Viking society was based on agriculture and trade with other peoples and placed great emphasis on the concept of honour both in combat and in the criminal justice system.

It is unknown what triggered the Vikings expansion and conquests, but historians have suggested that technological innovations imported from Mediterranean civilizations along with a milder climate led to population growth due to a long period of good crops. Another factor was the destruction of the Frisian fleet by Charlemagne around 785, which interrupted the flow of many trading goods from Central Europe to Scandinavia and led the Vikings to come looking for it themselves.

The beginning of the Viking Age is commonly given as 793, when Vikings raided the important British island monastery of Lindisfarne (although a minor incursion was recorded in 787); and the end of the Viking Age is traditionally marked by the failed invasion of England, attempted by Harald Hårdråde, who was defeated by the Saxon king Harold Godwinson (himself an Anglicised Viking), in 1066. Godwinson himself was next defeated that same year by another Viking descendant, William, Duke of Normandy (Normandy had itself been acquired by Vikings (Normans) in 911).

The clinker-built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters, and thus extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders and settlers not only along coastlines, but also along the major river valleys of north-western Europe. Rurik also expanded to the east, and founded the first Russian state, with a capital at Novgorod, (which means, "new city"). According to one author, the word "Rus" originally meant "Viking raider", as distinct from the native slavic peoples. Other Norse people, particularly those from the area that is now modern-day Sweden, continued south on Russian rivers to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople (which had been established in 667 B.C., and was re-named Constantinople in 330 A.D. by Constantine the Great). Whenever these viking ships would run aground in shallow waters, the Vikings would reportedly turn them on their sides and drag them across the land, into deeper waters.

France, "the Kingdom of the Franks" (a Germanic tribe who settled in Gaul, after the fall of the Roman Empire, and whose famous King was Charlemagne, who had re-united the Kingdom by 771), was particularly hard-hit by these raiders, who could sail down the Seine River with near impunity. The region now known as Normandy (after the Viking "Norsemen, men from the north") was profoundly disrupted during this period.

In 911, the French king, Charles the Simple, was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Hrolf Ganger, later called Rollo. Charles gave Hrolf the title of duke, and granted him and his followers possession of Normandy. In return, Hrolf swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups. The results were, in a historical sense, rather ironic: several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only thereafter identified themselves as French, but carried the French language, and their variant of the French culture into England in 1066, after the Norman Conquest, and became the ruling aristocracy of Anglo-Saxon England. These Norman Viking descendants, although converting to Christianity, maintained their warlike nature, and eventually adopted chivalry, which joined learning to fight on horseback (like their Moorish enemies in Spain) with becoming knights or "holy warriors" of the Cross. One of their pass-times was jousting, or tournaments of armored knights fighting with lances (the Celtic "lancia") on horse-back.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viking_Age

http://www.hurstwic.org/history/text/history.htm

http://lauraloft.com/viking/viking.htm

Now from history I understood this as the Middle Ages, or a part of the Middle Age period. Which means dark and barbaric.

Viking is a romantic term made up in the 19th cventury by Romantics, so that shouldn't gel with the time, because they weren't called Vikings.

Heathen and Pagan are derogative from Christian conquest of the Asatru people,

and because Asatru is a term that is an Old Norse term I would say the Age should be called the Norman age like the Roman era or something?

What do you guys think?
 
Jay
#2
I'm of Norman descent, and I wouldn't peg the end of the "Viking age" at 1066, because there were Norman Kings that ruled England well after 1066. Much of the traditions and forms of government come from there people.

If your aware of this history you probably have picked up on my avatar...that is the William’s Royal crest. I like to think we Normans are the true rulers of Europe and North America (minus Mexico)...bwahahahaha!
 
Jersay
#3
Oh, i totally agree. You could say, in Iceland it never ended at all, and other places as well. For historians they fix that as the end because England was invaded at that time.

But i don't think it ended.
 
Jay
#4
It actually just started....


This whole English vs. French in Canada is really quite disturbing when you think about it. Because really it's just the English Normans vs the French Normans....as we know, Quebec was colonized by the French Normans, and the English Normans won the battle for supremacy. Now I just have to get that point across to the Quebecers...
 
Jersay
#5
Makes sense. If people could make others understand that viewpoint then everything would be okay.

However, with the Normans there were different kings so even if they are Norman descent-because they were from different areas and had different rulers, they might not get along.
 
Blackleaf
#6
England was ruled by the French (or, rather, the Normans) for almost 100 years - 1066 - 1154. (before that, we were ruled, on and off, by the Vikings for 300 years). We call England at that time "Norman England." But I've never heard an age called "Norman Age."

England's Norman Kings.

King William I
Also known as William the Conqueror
Reigned 1066-1087

King William II
Reigned 1087-1100
Killed in a hunting "accident"; probably murdered

King Henry I
Reigned 1100-1135

King Stephen
Reigned 1135-1154
 
Jersay
#7
The Vikings are a romantic age name for the people who ruled England from 793, to about 1154 A.D.

The Normans and the Vikings are the exact same people.

So instead of Viking which is a 18th century name for these people it should be called the Norman age.
 
Jay
#8
Quote: Originally Posted by Blackleaf

England was ruled by the French (or, rather, the Normans) for almost 100 years - 1066 - 1154. (before that, we were ruled, on and off, by the Vikings for 300 years). We call England at that time "Norman England." But I've never heard an age called "Norman Age."

England's Norman Kings.

King William I
Also known as William the Conqueror
Reigned 1066-1087

King William II
Reigned 1087-1100
Killed in a hunting "accident"; probably murdered

King Henry I
Reigned 1100-1135

King Stephen
Reigned 1135-1154


Thanks Balckleaf. Can you tell me if Her Majesty the Queen is related to these Normans at all?

I haven't had the time to look into it yet, but my understanding is she is related to them. Thanks.
 
Jersay
#9
Possibly, I thought one family line for Queen and King in England was transported in by Germany or something?
 
Calberty
#10
One of my favorite books is

'The Story of English' by Robert Macneil

It traces the origins of the English language and the many influences of various cultures and societies on what we call 'English' today. There are quite a few Viking/ Norse words, place names, grammar influences,, etc. in the English language we use today.

The book is at most libraries. It's a bit dated (20 years?) so don't be discouraged by the opening chapter but jump into the actual language origin. It's a fascinating read.
 
Jersay
#11
Well there is a story back in the (Eddas) which are basically historical accounts of Viking war stories and such that says that,

Old English and Old Norse were extremely familiar to begin with. And over time they were incorporated together.
 
Finder
#12
I think when people talk of the viking age, they are generally talking about that period of time which viking/norse cultural spread across europe in the ways of trade, raids and wars. Once the end of age came so did the decline in that type of norse activity, also I'd argue by the end of that age, Viking/norse culture had changed and also many had conservated to christanity which also changed there aditudes towards raiding, trade and war.
 
Jersay
#13
Quote:

I think when people talk of the viking age, they are generally talking about that period of time which viking/norse cultural spread across europe in the ways of trade, raids and wars. Once the end of age came so did the decline in that type of norse activity, also I'd argue by the end of that age, Viking/norse culture had changed and also many had conservated to christanity which also changed there aditudes towards raiding, trade and war.

But the term viking is a romantic age name. So I would propose calling it a Norse or Norman age. And in Iceland the Viking/Norse culture pretty much stayed in tact.
 
Finder
#14
Norse, yes but a romantic name is not wrong either. I mean we often assoiate names of ages with what the Roman's or Greeks called people. Viking or Norse... *shrugs* Mongolian, or Hun... whatever.

Anyhow I might be wrong with this one but I think the "Norman" age would beconsidered a different culture then that of the Viking/Norse of the early ages as these "vikings" were there to stay and mostly christian with a different set of beliefs or at least changing set of beliefs.

If I remember, as I draw this from memory the viking name came from the Eastern Roman Empire as they often had to deal with them.

But I do not think anyone would think of the Norse (pagans) and the Norse (Chrsitians) as not one fo the great civilizations. Hey they are always in the video games (wink)
 
Jersay
#15
Yeah, they are in the video games.

I guess that's something.
 
Finder
#16
Quote: Originally Posted by Jersay

Yeah, they are in the video games.

I guess that's something.

Well I know it pisses me if if the celts don't get into those games too. I remember when Civ 3 came out and it didn't have the celts. They added them in the expansion. Oh plus the "celts" were a barbaian tribe without the expansion. I was going to write a nasty email! lol.

But anyhow, the Norse were an a great culture and though like many culturers many focus on wars and raids, the Viking/norse, were amazing traders and settlers second to none that I can think of.

A big reason to why the "viking age" or the dark ages have been forwarded in a negitive light was in the collasp of the Western Roman Empire and the lose of the writen latin and education, really. True there was still some but in the west including the norse area's Western Romaization halted and went backwards. But the Norse were there own civilization with there own ways of doing things and I'd say they were strong traders, seafarers, explorers and settlers and the Romans were nt half as good as the "vikings" in those area's.
 
Jersay
#17
Quote:

But anyhow, the Norse were an a great culture and though like many culturers many focus on wars and raids, the Viking/norse, were amazing traders and settlers second to none that I can think of.

A big reason to why the "viking age" or the dark ages have been forwarded in a negitive light was in the collasp of the Western Roman Empire and the lose of the writen latin and education, really. True there was still some but in the west including the norse area's Western Romaization halted and went backwards. But the Norse were there own civilization with there own ways of doing things and I'd say they were strong traders, seafarers, explorers and settlers and the Romans were nt half as good as the "vikings" in those area's.

Too bad about the Celts in the video game area. They will be recognized more often I hope. However, when the Vikings went to England and Ireland, would it have been the Celts mostly that they fought? Or Anglo-Saxons?
 
Finder
#18
Ireland had a good "tourist commercial" a few years ago. Went something like this.. with visuals of sacking mind you.

"First the Romans came, then the anglos and then the saxons, the vikings and then the brits, come to Ireland, you will be the first we invited"

Anyhow it was something like that. was funny as hell.
 
Jersay
#19
Quote:

Ireland had a good "tourist commercial" a few years ago. Went something like this.. with visuals of sacking mind you.

"First the Romans came, then the anglos and then the saxons, the vikings and then the brits, come to Ireland, you will be the first we invited"

Anyhow it was something like that. was funny as hell.

Had to read it twice but i fine it funny.
 
Finder
#20
Yeah they ran that during the 90's in Canada and the USA.
 
Blackleaf
#21
The Vikings fought the Anglo-Saxons when they came over here and burnt and pillaged our villages.

The Anglo-Saxons came a few hundreds years previously from the areas that are now Northern Germany and Southern Denmark. When they landed on Britain's east coast, they fought the Celts, who were the natives of the island, and pushed them into the far extremes of the island - far west and far north. The Celts then stayed in those places far west and far north, and they became Wales and Scotland. The Germanic Anglo-Saxons inhabited the rest of the island, which later became England, which is why the English are described as a Germanic race who speak a Germanic language, whereas the Welsh and Scots are described as Celtic races, who speak they own Celtic languages. Really, the only native inhabitants of the island are the Welsh and Scots. They are the equivalent of the American Indians, I suppose.
 
Jersay
#22
Quote:

The Vikings fought the Anglo-Saxons when they came over here and burnt and pillaged our villages.

The Anglo-Saxons came a few hundreds years previously from the areas that are now Northern Germany and Southern Denmark. When they landed on Britain's east coast, they fought the Celts, who were the natives of the island, and pushed them into the far extremes of the island - far west and far north. The Celts then stayed in those places far west and far north, and they became Wales and Scotland. The Germanic Anglo-Saxons inhabited the rest of the island, which later became England, which is why the English are described as a Germanic race who speak a Germanic language, whereas the Welsh and Scots are described as Celtic races, who speak they own Celtic languages. Really, the only native inhabitants of the island are the Welsh and Scots. They are the equivalent of the American Indians, I suppose.

The Vikings came from the same area. The Vikings are based on Northern German, northern Scandanavia peoples.

So maybe that's why Old Enlgish and Old Norse are so similar.
 
Martin Le Acadien
#23
The Vikings actually had a good play of Northern Europe and settled not only Iceland but Greenland as well! The Last Viking evacuated Greenland in favor of Iceland 1n the 1500's, thus ending the Colonization of Greenland! Several factors account for this failure in Greenland but the Little Ice Age, 1100-1850 probably brought on the diminuation of Agriculture on Greenland and thus the Hanseatic League of the Baltic concentrated it effort on Iceland which had slipped into a feudal barony of Denmark by 1500.
 
Jersay
#24
Quote:

The Vikings actually had a good play of Northern Europe and settled not only Iceland but Greenland as well! The Last Viking evacuated Greenland in favor of Iceland 1n the 1500's, thus ending the Colonization of Greenland! Several factors account for this failure in Greenland but the Little Ice Age, 1100-1850 probably brought on the diminuation of Agriculture on Greenland and thus the Hanseatic League of the Baltic concentrated it effort on Iceland which had slipped into a feudal barony of Denmark by 1500.

Interesting, post.
 
Martin Le Acadien
#25
Quote:

But anyhow, the Norse were an a great culture and though like many culturers many focus on wars and raids, the Viking/norse, were amazing traders and settlers second to none that I can think of.

The Vikings were great travelers and traders also, they conducted war but also had trade contacts in Italy, Spain and the Eastern Roman Empire at Constantinople! Their settlement of Iceland and Greenland was the stuff legends were made of and lets not forget that the Vikings reached Newfoundland at Anse aux Meadows about 1000 AD where Snorri was born, the first European in the New World as documented. The reason for the Vikings not staying in Newfoundland (North America) are varied but the Norse Ballads tell of Skrealings (which were the Beothuk Indians, as I understand, Beothuks were pretty warlike, so the Vikings might have met their match)

Quote:

A big reason to why the "viking age" or the dark ages have been forwarded in a negitive light was in the collasp of the Western Roman Empire and the lose of the writen latin and education, really. True there was still some but in the west including the norse area's Western Romaization halted and went backwards. But the Norse were there own civilization with there own ways of doing things and I'd say they were strong traders, seafarers, explorers and settlers and the Romans were nt half as good as the "vikings" in those area's.

The Roman empire that we think of was the Western Roman Empire at Rome, Italy which petered out in 476AD with the defeat of Valentinen III by Alaric of the Huns which proclaimed himself King of Italy and took it upon himself to give an Oath of Loyalty to the "Eastern Roman Emperor" which was at Constantinople. We call the Eastern Empire, "The Byzantine Empire" which had a more of a Greek Flavor but was quite a world power in the 500's to 1000 AD when it was beset with problems from the Rise of Islam and the loss of Territory around North Africa, Spain, Middle East and present day Turkey! Until the 700's, Lords of France and Britannia took Oaths to the Emperor at Constantinople and because the Lords and Nobility arose out of Chieftains appointed by "Roman" authority, we can see how medievel Europe arose when the "Roman" influence was simply dissolved!

The Norse were Mercenaries of the Eastern Roman Emperor and his hosehold guard was made up of Norse fighting men! In the Haggia Sophia in Istanbul in Turkey, you can see Runic Writing carved by a "Viking" which is preserved to this day!
 
Jersay
#26
Some Norse were Roman mercenaries, as others went on to colonize Iceland and Greenland and other places.