# Star formation. / scheme by Israel Sadovnik Socratus /

socratus
+1
#1  Top Rated Post

Star formation. / scheme by Israel Sadovnik Socratus /
(reference frame, masses,energy, process, limits)
==..
1)
Where does star formation begin?
Star formation begins in the Zero Vacuum T=0K.
2)
Which primary masses isneeded for star formation?
The primary masses of starformation are k-molar – masses.
( k-molar particles: R/N= k)
3)
Which primary energy needsfor star formation?
The primary energy is E=h*f , E=(kb)*f
4)
How the primary process ofstar formation is going?
In some local place of T=0K there are Avogadro numbers
of molar-mass particles (k). In this local place an energy particle
with energy E=h*f, E=(kb)*f begins rotate (Kapitza / Landau
experiment) and create Loschmidt volume space.
As the result of such action:
the molar-mass particles (k) change their state and became
chemical element known by name "heliumtwo - He II" (T=2,17K)
and the next chemical element will be heliumone – He I (T=4,2K).
In the beginning the process isgoing as h*f >kT. More correct -
the process is going as E=(kb)*f > E= kT logW. ( logW as a probability
factor to create Loschmidt volume space.) In this situation is possible
to use "Stefan-Boltzmanntotal radiation law given off by anideal gas."
#
Later all system became rotatedand the rotation of He II and He I are
different from all others known liquids. He IIand He I rotate as some
hard elastic strings. (E.L. Andronikashviliexperiment).
In their movement the hard elastic strings of He II and He I break on
small pieces known as ion-hydrogen (T=20,5K).
#
It seems that the temperature ofthe system in this point would
stop increase . . . and then the process would go vice versa . . .
. . . the small pieces of ion -hydrogen would break into pieces of helium
. . . and it will be seemedthat the star runs to cool off . . . . .
. . . . but . . . . but . . . in this time new factor comes.
5)
One supplementary factor forstar formation.
Sun is some kind of "cosmicstove".
To keep fire in the"stove" is needed all time to put "wood" in it.
Light quanta have masses andtherefore (according to GRT)
the gravity field of Sun can grasp light quanta and . . . .
and . . . . burn them. The "wood" forSun are light quanta.
The combination of helium,ion-hydrogen and light quanta
increase hot to the level known by name "nuclear reactions" . . . .
In this case the process isgoing as E=kT logW > E=(kb)*f .
( logW as a probabilityfactor to have enough mass to createstrong Gravity field) .
Every second Sun loses (x) tonof its masses as radiation . . .
it means that every second Sun needs "to eat"equal (x) ton
of masses of light quanta inorder to keep its long-life functions.
There isn't "free lunch" forSun radiation.
To have "lunch" Sun needs "food "- light quanta.
Without"food-fuel" Sun radiation will be quickly go out.
#
Once more:
Sun (stars) cannot exist for long time without food –
- quantum of light. And the Cook who prepared this food for
stars (as well as for life too) is the Vacuum, ZeroVacuum: T=0K, . . . . . “God–Vacuum”.
#
Look at wisdomof Nature, look at wisdom of “God –Vacuum”.
As children we created snowball. How we did this?
We took a snow in our hands and pressed it and then we pushed
that little ballof snow along, and it got bibber and bigger.
So, in the center of snowball is the same kind of snow asoutside
only in different conditions.
God- Vacuum, Nature played in the same way.
God-Vacuum gives birth to passive, potential k-molarparticles.
Then He “pressed” one k- molar-particle (or it pressed byitself) and
it became energy- ball particle with formula E=(kb)*f andpushed that
little energy - ball of “snow”- along passivek-molar particles
(they have geometrical forms offlat-circles) and they created
thermodynamic hot ball by theformula: E=kT (logW)
So, in the center of star-ball is the same kind ofparticle as outside
only in different conditions.
6)
The Zero Vacuum is an infinite / unlimited continuum.
Everything the rest is limited by physical laws.
Masses are limited by physicalparameters:
a) onthe micro scale by k- molar-mass and
b) on the macro scale by Chandrasekhar's mass.
7)
Which power was created hot star- gravity?
The answer can be only one: electro-dynamical.
"Is the electromagneticforce really strong?"
"It is very strong and thisis surprising too because it can work over
an infinite range. To give you an idea, theelectromagnetic force is
approximately 10^36 times stronger than theearth's gravitational field!
That is (to put it in perspective)
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000t imes stronger than gravity on Earth!"
http://emandpplabs.nscee.edu/cool/temporary/doors/forces/electromagforce/electromagnetic.htm

In the XVII, the XVIII, the XIXcenturies the Newton’s gravity
of gravity was adopted as effectto the Universe as whole.
Even in the XX century Einsteinin 1917 used his gravity theory
(GRT) to the Universe as whole.
Today astronomers andastrophysicists know that
the Gravity doesn’t work in ourGalaxy as whole. And therefore
(trying to safe Gravity) they say that only 4% or 7% of masses
in the Universe are collected instars and planets (many centuries
scientists ( + Einstein) weresure that about all masses of the
Universe collected into starsand planets) and more than 90%
of masses in the Universe as whole are “dark masses”
and “dark energy”. Nobody knowswhat they are.
Nobody knows how from unseen“dark masses” and “dark energy”
these visual stars and planetswere created.
My opinion:
a) the Gravity is local Cosmiceffect.
b) the “dark masses” are E= kT logW.
c) the “dark energy” is E=(kb)*f .
But until today nobody explained theinteraction between
E= (kb)*f and E=kT (logW). / . . . the Nobel Prize . . 2115 (?) /
9)
Todayan “aether” is the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation:
T=2,7 (the Nobel Prize 1978 ) b ut tomorrow - - - - >
tomorrow - - - - > T=2,7K -- --- -- --- - > T=0K.
10)
If in Andronikashvili experiment will befound ion-hydrogen . . .
then this scheme is on the rightway.
===================…
Best wishes.
================…

darkbeaver
#2
How are Stars Born?

Electrical Birthing of Stars

Stellar Nurseries

Predictions, Falsifiability and the Standard Model of Stellar Evolution

"Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind oforbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair... What we have found is a millisecond pulsar that is in the wrong kind of orbit around what appears to be the wrong kind of star. Now we have to figure out how this strange system was produced." (Emphasis added).
Astronomers are apparently grasping at straws in their attempts to explain this unexpected stellar pairing and orbital geometry. If Karl Popper’s contention is believed, that falsifiability is the test for whether a theory is scientific or not, then this recent series of news releases appears to have falsified the Standard Model. The question now is whether that fact will be acknowledged, or whether astronomers will simply sweep another predictive failure under the rug. (See Popper, Sir Karl R., Conjectures and Refutations, London: Routledge and Keagan, 1963, pages 33-39).
How many predictive failures are required before a theory can be falsified? According to Popper, the threshold is “one”. One concrete contradiction is sufficient to falsify a theory and require that a new one be considered.

lone wolf
+1
#3
Talent, time and acting lessons

AnnaG
+1
#4
Singing lessons, too.

Ludlow
#5
I like to look at pictures of space from the Hubble telescope on youtube Millions of spinning galaxies,,,all the shapes and colors and activity. Fascinating .

darkbeaver
+1
#6

red square

socratus
#7

Galaxy mergers
Galaxy mergers can occurwhen two (or more) galaxies collide. ....
The larger galaxy willoften "eat" the smaller,
absorbing most of itsgas and stars with little ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_merger
#
September 19th, 2014
The International Centrefor Radio Astronomy Research
http://www.icrar.org/home/monster-galaxies-gain-weight-by-eating-smaller-neighbours

#
. . . . . etc.

socratus
#8
a) The average density of matter ( the critical density ) in the universe
(even incorporating a dark mass and dark energy ) is so small that
the universe as a whole must be a flat infinite continuum

b) According to WMAP the universe as whole is flat
WMAP- Shape of the Universe

c) The MCBR has a thermal temperature of 2.7 K and
this temperature will be drop down . . . . to zero

d) Book.
‘ According to the picture emerging from the WMAP satellite,
a mysterious antigravity force is accelerating the expansion
of the universe. If it continued for billions or trillions of years,
the universe will inevitably reach a big freeze . . . ’
/ page 288 /
#
In 1854, . . . Helmholtz realized that the laws of
thermodynamics could be applied to the universe as a whole,
meaning that everything around us, including the stars and
galaxies, would eventually have to run down.’
/ Book: Parallel Worlds , page 289, by Michio Kaku /
===…