In 1783 John Michell wrote that a big massive star would have
such a strong gravity field that light could not escape. Such objects
was called "black holes".
In 1928 Chandrasekhar realized that a star of more than about
one and a half times the mass of our Sun would collapse to a zero size.
In the other words Chandrasekhar mass-limit law says that stars mush
bigger than our Sun cannot exist in Nature ( it is impossible to create
snowball as big as the mountain Everest) Chandrasekhar's limit law
was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1983.
So, in my opinion, "black holes" are scientific fictions.
a) But astronomers observed regions in the Universe without any light.
For example: unseen object called Cygnus X and a number of other
objects in our galaxy. Using entropy , quantum fluctuation ,
uncertainty principle astrophysicists say that the temperature of these
regions are only one ten-millionth of a degree above absolute zero.
The difference is so slight that I can say these regions have the absolute
zero temperature: T=0K.
Without entropy , quantum fluctuation . . . etc. their temperature is T=0K).
b) The detected material mass of the matter in the Universe
is so small (the average density of all substance in the
Universe is approximately p=10^-30 g/sm^3) that it
cannot ‘close’ the Universe into a sphere and therefore
the Universe as a whole is ‘open’, endless, infinite.
c) Only in local, limited regions this T=0K is broken.
In these limited, local regions the Newton’s and Einstein’s
Gravity limited laws are worked.
“There has also been mounting evidence that so-called
“supermassive black holes” lurk in the cores of most galaxies,
including our own Milky Way. Today, many physicists suspect
that giant black holes may be among the most ancient and important
objects in the universe, likely guiding the evolution of the galaxies
that now harbor them”.
/ Book: “Universe on a T-shirt” , page 113, by Dan Falk./
1) Chandrasekhar mass-limit law forbid existence of stars much
bigger than our Sun and therefore the source of so-called
“supermassive black holes” must be another.
2) As infinite cosmic continuum the Universe has the absolute
zero temperature: T=0K and it is core / harbor / source of all galaxies.
3) The evolution of all galaxies was begun from T=0K by the scheme:
a) first chemical element Helium II ( T=2,17K)
b) second chemical element Helium I ( T=4,2K)
Every scientific amateur knows about strange behavior of He-II and He-I.
Israel Sadovnik Socratus.